The XOR function is the simplest (afaik) non-linear function. Is is impossible to separate True results from the False results using a linear function. Neural nets used in production or research xor neural network are never this simple, but they almost always build on the basics outlined here. Hopefully, this post gave you some idea on how to build and train perceptrons and vanilla networks.

  • The AND logical function is a 2-variables function, AND(x1, x2), with binary inputs and output.
  • But this could also lead to something called overfitting — where a model achieves very high accuracies on the training data, but fails to generalize.
  • Visually what’s happening is the matrix multiplications are moving everybody sorta the same way (you can find more about it here).
  • There are two non-bias input units representing the two binary input values for XOR.
  • First, we’ll have to assign random weights to each synapse, just as a starting point.
  • There are several workarounds for this problem which largely fall into architecture (e.g. ReLu) or algorithmic adjustments (e.g. greedy layer training).

The selection of suitable optimization strategy is a matter of experience, personal liking and comparison. Keras by default uses “adam” optimizer, so we have also used the same in our solution of XOR and it works well for us. Both the features lie in same range, so It is not required to normalize this input.


So we need a way to adjust the synpatic weights until it starts producing accurate outputs and “learns” the trend. But in other cases, the output could be a probability, a number greater than 1, or anything else. Normalizing in this way uses something called an activation function, of which there are many.

Backpropagation is an algorithm for update the weights and biases of a model based on their gradients with respect to the error function, starting from the output layer all the way to the first layer. The XOR, or “exclusive or”, problem is a classic problem in ANN research. It is the problem of using a neural network to predict the outputs of XOR logic gates given two binary inputs.

This table will be used to predict the output of the XOr operator for given inputs. The xor problem is a problem in neural networks where the output of the network is the exclusive or (xor) of the inputs. The xor problem is a challenge for neural networks because it is not linearly separable. This means that there is no line that can be drawn to separate the two classes of inputs.

Learning parameters

The difference in actual and predicted output is termed as loss over that input. The summation of losses across all inputs is termed as cost function. Selection of a loss and cost functions depends on the kind of output we are targeting. In Keras we have binary cross entropy cost funtion for binary classification and categorical cross entropy function for multi class classification. Now that we’ve looked at real neural networks, we can start discussing artificial neural networks. Like the biological kind, an artificial neural network has inputs, a processing area that transmits information, and outputs.

Weights and Biases

This function allows us to fit the output in a way that makes more sense. For example, in the case of a simple classifier, an output of say -2.5 or 8 doesn’t make much sense with regards to classification. If we use something called a sigmoidal activation function, we can fit that within a range of 0 to 1, which can be interpreted directly as a probability of a datapoint belonging to a particular class. We’ll give our inputs, which is either 0 or 1, and they both will be multiplied by the synaptic weight. We’ll adjust it until we get an accurate output each time, and we’re confident the neural network has learned the pattern.

The 2d XOR problem — Attempt #2

Notice the artificial neural net has to output ‘1’ to the green and black point, and ‘0’ to the remaining ones. In other words, it need to separate the green and black points from the purple and red points. As we know that for XOR inputs 1,0 and 0,1 will give output 1 and inputs 1,1 and 0,0 will output 0. In my next post, I will show how you can write a simple python program that uses the Perceptron Algorithm to automatically update the weights of these Logic gates.

These weights will need to be adjusted, a process I prefer to call “learning”. I am introducing some examples of what a perceptron can implement with its capacity (I will talk about this term in the following parts of this series!). Logical functions are a great starting point since they will bring us to a natural development of the theory behind the perceptron and, as a consequence, neural networks. With this, we can think of adding extra layers as adding extra dimensions.

Neural Networks for Dummies!

It happened because their negative coordinates were the y ones. It happened due to the fact their x coordinates were negative. Note every moved coordinate became zero (ReLU effect, right?) and the orange’s non negative coordinate was zero (just like the black’s one). The black and orange points ended up in the same place (the origin), and the image just shows the black dot. Empirically, it is better to use the ReLU instead of the softplus. Furthermore, the dead ReLU is a more important problem than the non-differentiability at the origin.

Although there are several activation functions, I’ll focus on only one to explain what they do. Let’s meet the ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit) activation function. On the contrary, the function drawn to the right of the ReLU function is linear. Applying multiple linear activation functions will still make the network linear. The value of Z, in that case, will be nothing but W0+W1+W2. Now, the overall output has to be greater than 0 so that the output is 1 and the definition of the AND gate is satisfied.

The XOR function

The problem itself was described in detail, along with the fact that the inputs for XOR are not linearly separable into their correct classification categories. One neuron with two inputs can form a decisive surface in the form of an arbitrary line. In order for the network to implement the XOR function specified in the table above, you need to position the line so that the four points are divided into two sets. Trying to draw such a straight line, we are convinced that this is impossible. The XOr Problem is a binary classification problem where we need to use supervised learning to train a Neural Network (a perceptron) to produce the truth table related to the XOr logical operator.

These branch off and connect with many other neurons, passing information from the brain and back. Millions of these neural connections exist throughout our bodies, collectively referred to as neural networks. The most important thing to remember from this example is the points didn’t move the same way (some of them did not move at all). That effect is what we call “non linear” and that’s very important to neural networks. Some paragraphs above I explained why applying linear functions several times would get us nowhere. Visually what’s happening is the matrix multiplications are moving everybody sorta the same way (you can find more about it here).